School regulations and education orders and school orders – The Meiji government's struggle that suffered suddenly in the education system


Various things leading to the present were made in the Meiji era.

One of them is a school.

Strictly speaking, Japanese original educational institutions such as Terakoya and private private schools existed since the Edo era, but the policy since the Meiji period has led to the current small, middle and high level system.

It mainly consists of [ school regime ] and [ education order ] and [ school order ]at first glance, tasteless with dry taste! Because it is the content saying, let's also look at the society of the time together here.

School system – Do not deprive the workers of Ora!

The school system is the first law concerning modern education in Japan.
Preparation began immediately after abolished clan area in Meiji 4 year, and it was issued in August of 1872 (1872).

Before the occurrence of Shimonoseki 's political change in Shimonoseki and the subsequent " Rebellion of the People of the People" ] occurred.
If such a civil war had occurred earlier, the school system might have been delayed.

In fact, its introduction was not even Sunnari from the beginning.

In those days, within the government, we first urgently set up and disseminate elementary schools for basic education.
Because there were Terakoya and Private School, it seemed that there was no problem spreading to the general public, but here we will eat an unexpected repulsion.

For example, in rural areas
"If you remember only minimum reading and writing and calculation you can live, why is the robber robbing a child who is a worker! Even tuition is not free!"
It was the mainstream idea.
The house which has work in the family, child was included in the worker, was dissatisfied with the decision of the government. Well, that's right.

Merchants who do business from the Edo era are the same.

"Working from living in a living place, which will be independent by goodwill"

"I have to learn work from the office on site but I can have hope in the future"
Because they also had such a classic course, the school system seemed to be an unrealistic and silly system.

Academic system and education imperial / National Diet Library

Primary education order – Do not mess the site!

Together with measures to deal with complaints and others, there is a tendency for the early Meiji Government to say to the Meiji Government "Because we want to do this, the bottom people listen silently!" like…….

However, as for the academic system, the government responds quickly.
Seven years after the dissemination of the academic system, in 1879, we again issued an "education order" to aim at spreading the school system more in line with the actual situation.

Even though

educational orders did not go well soon, and a full revision was carried out three times.

Firstly, at the primary education order, we have put all our emphasis on popularization of elementary schools, also from the initial education.
"It is stipulated that the committee members of each municipality will make curriculums that are consistent with local circumstances."

Even in modern school circumstances, the textbook differs depending on the area and prefecture, and the unit where the emphasis is put on changes somewhat, it may be a remnant of the time.

In addition, school attendance for children was said to be "responsibility of parents and guardians" and it was said that children must be allowed to attend school for at least 16 months (= 1 year and 4 months).
Although it is rather short compared with the present age.

As I started to move in a nice direction … the educational ordinance that seemed like … I will not go sunnari after all.

Personnel who were making educational systems at the scene fiercely opposed.
"Up to now I have come as you said, why suddenly change the policy and confuse the site!"
For this reason, a second education order was issued the following year. Ahh. Examinees in Japanese history make me cry.

Secondary Education Order & Third Education Order &

In the Secondary Education Order (1880), clear provisions have been incorporated.

For example, like this.
"Children must go to school for at least 16 weeks of age each year until they complete the three-year undergraduate course"

In addition, we can incorporate the concept of "Confucianism" or "Confucianism" which is the current morality in the curriculum.

It is surprising for the new government that continued the attitude of "Western is splendid! Orient is not good!" Due to the influence of Western powers continuing from the end of the Tokugawa period.
As a public, Japanese customs and Confucianism would have been more familiar, so it seems to be one of the key points to keep in mind.

Subsequently, the third education order of 1885.
At this time, an educational institution like a simple elementary school called "elementary school building" was created.
It is an image closer to Terakoya and private private school, because the provision and educational contents are loose than the elementary school.

Elementary school at that time needed tuition fee, but in some provinces there are few houses where you can not pay tuition.
However, the government was trying to promote unification of languages ​​by thoroughly enforcing primary education as soon as possible as soon as possible.

The dialect is also one of the cultures.
However, considering future recruitment, I do not want to avoid having to understand each other 's dialects and not receiving orders.
In order to prevent it, it is better to teach the standard language at the time of primary education.

The result of fitting this neighborhood was the establishment of an educational institution called "elementary school ground".

"Compared to elementary school, only simple education can be accepted, but tuition fee will not be collected (covered by ward / town / village fee)"
Many houses came to let the child receive education with confidence.

School Order ~ English should be Japanese Language

In 1886, the Education Order switched to several laws collectively referred to as "school orders".

The fact that the first Minister of Education, Mori Mori (Mori Mori) was quite radical among radical radical policymakers has a big influence.
About how much I was saying that "English should be Japanese language".
It is said that American linguists are saying "It would be better to stop it." It is said that they are lowering it, but what if it were not so?

Well, from European Americans, "You ought to firmly claim your identity, why did Japanese deny it and try to have the same as Westerners?"
There is nothing more irreparable than "loss of culture".

The school ordinance is not a single law, it is a summary of the following four laws.

· Elementary school order
· Junior High School Ordinance
· Imperial University Ordinance
· Normal School Ordinance

Particularly in the elementary school decree, "It is the duty of parents to let children be educated" was specified clearly.
However, if there is sickness, household pains, or other unavoidable circumstances, deferral and school enrollment is allowed.

After these twists and turns, the enrollment rate of elementary school for men and women exceeded 90% in the Meiji 30's.

Education of the Education – initially a slogan rather than a law

Well, when speaking of the Meiji era + education [educational imperial rescript] can also be mentioned well.

It is officially "Education NISHINSUKU SENKU" issued in the name of the Meiji era in the Meiji 23 (1890).
Originally this was not a law but a slogan, but as the emperor became deified, practically it became more important than the law or even more.

There are various translations and interpretations about the contents, but when looked at it

· Japan has been in existence since ancient times
· It is the result of cooperation not only by the Imperial Family, but by all the people
· So I will continue to believe in each other and work properly and continue the country
· This is an idea leading to the ancient and east-west

is written in a literal body somewhat challengingly.

In the original sentence, contents such as "service", "service", "you should protect yourself by yourself in case of emergency" are included, there is also a more compulsive feeling, so the neighborhood has recently been debated It is becoming a point.

If you would like to know more, please ask the teacher who teaches original sentences and modern translations.
Because the significance of learning history is not to abuse the past, but to think about where to capture for present and future.

Education that can also be used for brainwashing.
What we need in this era is not to teach the viewpoint of "to select information and think by yourself".
On that point, the Internet is a very useful tool.

Chitose Changchun

Reference: Kokugaku Daijiten "School System" "Education Order" "Education Encyclopedia" Hundred Years of Education / MEXT

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