The story of politics and the Constitution is hard to climb.
Even if it is history study.
There are also people who are quite stiff topics, for example, "When the Japan Empire Constitution is in … ◯◯ … …", some people say "ugh, stuffy … …".
However, some stories are easy to stick, for example
"When you die Itagaki, freedom can not die!"
What a quote is like a movie, everyone is a husband who goes through elementary and junior high school classes.
This was actually another word, but well, if you chew and swallow such stories, I think that historical politics and constitutional story will also be interested.
this time free civil rights movement Let's clean up the Imperial Diet ]!
What is the free civil rights movement?
First from the civil rights movement.
This is "a political campaign carried out by the retirement of Itagaki, aiming to open the Diet and establish the Constitution."
The era is the story of the early Meiji era.
Specifically, Ishibaki, who left the government in the "political change of the year 6th year of the Meiji era", started with local Tosa.
This political change was the defeat of Itagaki who was defeated over the theory of Conquering Hanamaki Saigo Takamori Eiji Shinpei including the big names of Shogunate Shimono (resigned government) Thing.
While Eto Shinpei caused a turbulence in Saga, Saigo was driven to the Southwest War (Rebellion of the Genghisaku), Itagaki approached the government from a totally different way started.
That is the submission of a blank statement.
Itagaki issued this opinion letter to the Meiji government.
"Government should not ask the people's opinion to put a lot of obligations to the people, it should be politicized to make the Diet and incorporate public opinion"
Originally, there were also "Opinions on Public Expansion Public Nomenclature" in the Opposition of the Five Clauses, so it was impossible to ignore for the Meiji government forever.
In addition, the Itagaki Construction Book was also posted in the newspaper, and he himself actively spread their ideas, so the number of people who agree with the free civil rights movement will increase.
Also, as Saigo and others lost in the Southwest War after various rhetoric revolts, the surviving samurai also changed their mind as "Keeping their position with speech rather than tikara!" I will.
It is a really confusing place to go around this part at the same time.
Why "Awase Sultomo Freedom Ha Death Sen" is … …
After the rebellion of these samurai, as a government
"It is irresistible to be mobified again"
At the time I tried to crack down on the free civil rights movement.
The incident that the Itagaki is attacked by a violent thing happens also.
At that time, it is famous that he said and said, "Itagaki will die, freedom can not die".
The original remark is
"Aura Sultmo Freedom Ha Death Sen"
It seems that it was, it seems to have been deformed while being transmitted to the world.
There are similar cases in contemporary media such as "Adultery is culture ( see )" or "Giants are weaker than Lotte (] ".
Perhaps, the perpetrators who attacked Itagaki, by intentionally harming the Itagaki being the center of exercise, made excuses and mobs those who joined the Liberal Democratic Movement, and the excuse that the government crackdowns with force Did you try to make?
The end of the Edo period and the Southwest War were such a feeling.
But at this time it did not go.
"Let the country listen to the country with petition, not exhausted"
More than the government thought it was, the signature of Ishibaki et al. 'S petition to open the Diet was increasing day by day.
And Itagaki formed Japan's first political party and Liberal Party.
What is the Constitution of the Japan Empire?
In the middle of this time, the political change of the Meiji 14 year has occurred.
I like political change quite a lot!
Aside from Tsukkomi, this is a brief remark, Shigetobu Okuma, who had argued that the government should make German or British constitutionalism and rush "opening parliamentary politics and the National Assembly", should fail.
onwards, the establishment of the Constitution will be led by Mr. Iwakura and Hirofumi Ito.
However, Okuma did not give up politics, too, and started a new approach to political circles by making a constitutional amendment party.
Although this party broke away earlier, it is not completely disappeared because there is a successor party (these movements will lead to political parties crying for the examination student).
While political fighting happens in the center, the demand for the Diet and the Constitution is rising, the government finally breaks.
In October, Meiji announced "I will make a Diet by the year 23," and Hirofumi Ito was dispatched to Germany and Austria for the constitutional study in the following year.
Ito It was taught exactly to the professionals of the constitution locally.
I returned home in about a year and a half and I started drafting.
Then, a draft was made over three years, and then it was completed with deliberations and opinions of German advisors … …
It is the Constitution of the Japan Empire.
The most referenced is the Constitution of Prussia (formally known as the "German Constitution, besides the Bismarck Constitution and the German Empire Constitution).
Among Europe, I refer to Prussia entering emerging countries because the constitution of that country emphasized the power of the monarch.
For the government who wants to focus on the Emperor Meiji as well as the deity, it was just a good role model.
What is the privilege of the Emperor described in the Constitution?
In the Constitution of the Japan Imperial Empire, what is regarded as the privilege of the Emperor only is
· Legislative authority
· Declaration of war, peace, right of command
and so on.
However, this is more than half nominal and most of the rights were exercised with the help of Congress.
Is it possible to say an exception in a sense, is the commander's power?
This means "Land / Navy is led directly by the Emperor", but at the same time it can be said that "Because the army should be commanded directly by the Emperor, you do not receive orders from Congress or the government."
This neighborhood will be a story that is not a big deal after a while (the military moves alone during wartime).
As a digression, while the government was drafting and completing the Constitution, there were times when private constitutional drafts were made by people who were doing the civil rights movement.
It is called the "I pseudo-constitution method".
it seems that there were even super-advanced ones that said that "the parliament chosen by the election is superior to the emperor which is the assertion of executive power".
I often announced such things in this era and it was something I was not shocked by unfair crime.
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan is supposed to be the King Constitution (= the Constitution that the Emperor gives to his ministers and citizens), but in the preface, the emperor governs his subjects with the power given from the Holy Spirit of the Imperial Majesty Because things are written, it seems there is a part like the theory of kingship.
The theory of royal authority is the theory that as "king is given power from God, it is erotic!" As written.
However, in Europe it is a theory that appeared in the 16th century (= 300 years ago from the Meiji era), so it is not necessarily modern.
Constitution was favorably accepted as a condition of developed countries
Emperor Meiji served as a constitutional monarch, and since he would have refrained from leaving the true heart on the standpoint, I do not know how I thought about this neighborhood.
However, if you take a warped view, it can be said to emerge that "the Meiji Government was deceiving how to empower the Emperor and use it for governance".
In that habit clause etc., since the sentence such as "The Emperor can ◆ ◆ ◆ in the case of ◯◯" that seems to be strongly conscious of the constitutional monarchy continues, it is said that it is twisted … ….
Was it sacred or tried to use, which one? I'm getting into wanting Tsukkomi.
German physician Ervin von Belz who had been employed as a foreigner to come to Japan was
"Hirofumi Ito gave a gesture to move the puppet in the story about the Crown Prince (Emperor Tao next)"
And I left it in my diary.
Was such a thought appearing in the Constitution?
However, at that time many people received "Constitution can be done" = "minimum condition as a developed country" were seen favorably.
It seems to be from "Congress can be done" = "Congressional members elected from citizens can participate in national affairs".
The first election of the House of Representatives in Japan was held in 1890, the year after the Empire of the Imperial Japanese Constitution was launched.
However, only a limited number of adult men (those with direct national tax of 15 yen or more) have voting rights, only the House of Representatives will be elected by election.
It was good or bad "first step", was not it?
What is the Imperial Diet?
The Congress was called the "Imperial Diet" and was abbreviated as "Diet".
In general it can be thought that "The era when the Constitution of Japan was used by the Empire of the Imperial Empire = the time when it was the Imperial Diet."
The Imperial Diet
· House of Lords
· House of Representatives
In the bicameral system of the House of Representatives, except that the House of Representatives has the right to budget, he had almost equal authority.
It is not because the aristocrat in the era in Japan of this era = a luxury but the "lord", probably because royalty and high taxpayers and scholars became members of the House of Representatives.
By the way, there were many former Daimyo who became members of the Chinese and the House of the Lords.
Examples include Tokugawa Yoshihiro, Matsudaira Soukyun (Son of Konoi), Moto Mori (son of Mori Mori).
Truly in this era, the next generation is increasing more than people who were daimyo at the time of the restoration, and the flow of time can be felt.
The Imperial Council was convened every December and the exhibition was supposed to be three months.
It was possible to extend by imperial command as necessary and to open an extraordinary society at times and occasions. This neighborhood is similar to modern parliament. (The modern day convened ordinary Diet regularly in January every 150 days)
In the Imperial Diet, when the House of Representatives was dissolved, the House of Lords also stopped, but on the contrary the House of Representatives had some restrictions on the House of Representatives by the House of Lords.
In the modern parliament there is "superiority of the House of Representatives", so here is a big difference.
From the present age, there are many insufficient points and tsukkomi matters in the Constitution and Congress of the Meiji Era.
However, since the situation and values of the time have great influence behind it, it means that the times have changed.
The Constitution of the Japan Imperial Empire was abolished in 1947, when the Constitution of Japan (the current constitution) was enforced.
The Japanese constitution has already been used for a long time.
If the situation changes greatly in the future, it may be time for the modern Constitution to be revised or abolished.
Reference: Dictionary of Kokugaku Dai Nippon Empire Constitution "The Imperial Diet"
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