Focus on 'Meiji era' Food, Food and Living ~ What changed from the Edo period and what was popular?

In the Meiji Era, it was an era when the common people also felt many major changes.

Although I am a little away from the examination and the flow of politics, knowing the lives of the people in those days is also fantastic.
It seems that you can taste the creations depicting this era more deeply, such as the 2018 Taiga Drama "Saigo Dori".

Let's look at "clothing, food, and housing" that changed during the Meiji Era this time.

About "clothing"

Regarding changes in clothes, it is popularization of clothes.

First of all, the imperial family and government's formal clothes were treated as clothes, and at the same time uniforms of public institutions, such as soldiers, station staff, postal staff, etc, were also decorated as western clothing.
The way people in these professions seen around the town wear clothes will eventually be accepted by ordinary people and become longing.

In the Meiji 11 year (1878)
"Kimono such as a bunko is made a vest and the western clothing is dressed as regular"
The law was made.

The banner is a formal wardrobe of the royal family and the officials who were born during the Heian period, and the Emperor is still worn during ritual occasion.
There is also a thing called "prohibition (Kinjiki) " that only the Emperor and the Crown Prince can wear.

Also in the case of women, the formal clothes of noble people became clothes.
In the Meiji 14th year (1881), we are told that "When senior officials accompany their wife in a public place, they are wearing clothing".

Koyokon diplomacy is the story after that.
Until then noble women did not go out of the house, but in the western party the wife was accompanied by theory, so Japan was supposed to follow it as well.

In other cases, clothes were used for nurses, but it did not spread easily to other women.
There are two main reasons why women's clothing was delayed.

Ukiyo-e painting the Kanonkan / quoted from wikipedia

Problems and hairstyle problems still remain, introduction is delayed

One is the aspect of price and scarcity.

Early in the Meiji period, it was difficult to get Western dresses and clothes even at Kurosawa .

It takes a lot of time to obtain and wear, so at the time of the famous "KOKOKANBO diplomacy" (foreign policy of "you must be recognized as a civilized country if you dance Western in Western-style buildings") The dress used in Japan seems to have been out of fashion already in the West.
In addition to the policies of the Kogankan diplomacy, it was cold eyes or lost smiles from Western countries. Unlike now, information does not convey soon.

Another problem is the hair style.

In the case of men, if you cut and prepare 髷 (marrow), you can make it 【Scattering Head】, but the idea of ​​"cutting a female hair straight and cutting it as a shortcut" does not exist in this age.
A woman cuts his hair short (shaves) = becoming a birthplace.
It was similar in Europe, and the women's short hair became popular after the First World War.

Therefore, in the case of women, it was necessary to improve the hairstyle that would suit the clothing as well as the cost reduction of the clothes.

Various styles were invented as well as until the Edo period, and there were several hairstyles that were easy to match even in kimono or Western wear.
A little interesting place, Hair style "two hundred and three highlands (髷)" has appeared around the time of the Russo-Japanese Warfare .

It is a hairstyle with a sense of humor, like reminiscent of an example highland.

Although the wardrobe made progress little by little in this way, people who wear clothes in uniforms also liked Japanese clothing in private, and it was not spread as much as now.
Even in comics set in the Showa era such as Sazae and others, the appearance frequency of Japanese clothes is high, are not it?

On the other hand, Japanese-style creativity style unique to this age, such as "female students of boots in hakama" and "Inverness court above Japanese clothes" is also born.

If you dress like this with your creations, you are familiar enough to imagine the imagery "Meiji or Taisho story talks" soon.

Actually, in other Asian countries this style of eclectic existed.
It seems there were "Western hats in Han costumes" in China and "Turban in western clothing" in India.

I feel that such a thing as the nature of Asian at that time could not be felt, or pride.

About "food"

Speaking of the topic of food in this era, it is probably popularization of meat eclipses.

There was also a purpose of improving the physique as a reason why the government recommended meat eating besides "becoming a civilized person".
"Westerners are doing a good physique" = "They eat meat often" = "Japanese people can improve their physique if they eat more meat?" → "(Picone!) So It was an association that I could become a strong country! " I also got such advice from foreigners.

Unfortunately, it was after the war when the average height approached that of the West, but well … the average does not rise so suddenly.
However, this is because the Asian group has increased in the West and the average has fallen there.

Dissemination of carnivorism has led to an improvement in the physique.
However, in modern times, the theory that 'westernization of food becomes the cause of various diseases' has come out, and the sense of balance has become more important.
Japanese food tends to have high salinity instead of low energy.

In the military, it is said that Westernization has advanced in the ocean from the land.

This was the navy minister Saigo Road said that the "Navy should go to Ueno's nurse and get used to western food".
If anything, the Navy has a number of diplomatic rituals, and was he anticipating such a thing?

It was a military doctor in the Army Mori Ogai said that Japanese people are more suitable for Japanese people and that they should endanger the harm of Western foods, so the spread has been delayed.
This is the most difficult thing because it is not wrong as a result of this.

You can not eat meat! And those who rush into the Imperial Palace

In general, there was also strong resistance to committing the prohibition of "not to eat livestock" for more than 1000 years.


when the Imperial Family started meat eclipses, there was even a person who charged (physically) to the Imperial Palace, saying, "The government is outrageous to eat dirty meat! God 's blessing will end! Says.
If it is a modern day, it will end with Tsukkodo "Fake News!", But at that time it was an unusual way of thinking.

Why did it spread?
It seems that there were many such feelings ↓

Mr. A gets courage to eat beef

"Good!" (Terettele!)

"Let's recommend it to our wife for good!"

A's wife B "It is ridiculous to eat meat of beef! I am disappointed!"

Mr. A "I'm really good ('· ω ·`) If you say good for your health, will you eat it? "

A, "Hey guys, you probably said you are in a bad condition so far, because you said beef is going to be a medicine, do you want to eat it?"

Mr. B "Is that so? Just a little … … It's delicious!" (Terettele!)

Mr. B "Why have not you eaten so much?"

Mr. A "Planned"

Actually, until the Edo period, miso pickled beef was made as medicinal for Hikone clan and others.
Since there is a record that we ate chicken as "medicine eating" also during the Warring States Period, it was known that meat is good for nourishment tonic.

Nonetheless there seems to be reasons other than that the Japanese did not want to eat the meat of the livestock, "It is forbidden for a thousand years."

"There are few plains in Japan's land so it was not easy to pastoralize"
"To cultivate what human beings can eat in the natural environment as well, I could not think of mass-producing feed grains"
This neighborhood seems to be related.

It may also be one of the reasons that sheep that is frequently used in cooking in China & sheep that is excellent as livestock did not inhabit much in Japan.

Like Japan, there are similar trends in Taiwan with many island countries & mountainous areas.

Although he had eaten pork for a long time in Taiwan, he often eat goats that can live not in sheep but also in mountainous areas. Also, as for cows, as in Japan, it seems that the idea of ​​"There is no way to eat animals that will help farm work!"
In modern times there is also the influence of Chinese cuisine, we eat cattle also in Taiwan, but there are a lot of people who resist resistance to eating sheep.

Even food culture, you can know the flow of history.

In the Meiji Era, Japan was able to solve some of these technical, historical and cultural reasons, and carnivorous progress was made.

Also, as with western and Western cuisine of clothes, Japan's unique arrangement was added to food.
It is said that the famous beef pot as an example of civilization opening was applying seasoning such as miso which was often used for game meat to beef.

After that, it changed to seasoned with soy sauce and sugar as the center, and it changed to Sukiyaki and continued to the present age.

About "Housing"

As it is said that "modern shopping once in a lifetime" also in modern times, there was no change in clothing or eating about houses.

but when you expand your field of vision to architectural relations, you can see the influence of the West as well.

Until the Meiji 20s, the form of "pseudo-style building" was often used.
It is not a "fake" or "fake" meaning "fake" but "pseudo" meaning "to make it similar".

If you speak in a quiet way of saying "What is it like western style architecture?" It is an architectural style often used for public institutions such as schools and post offices.

While retaining the characteristics of Japanese architecture such as wooden, plaster and roof tile, western style spiers etc are attached.
In the middle of the Meiji era more Western Western building technology came in, so the buildings of this kind gradually became less.

Just like the Kodokan diplomacy, from the Westerners it can not be said that pseudo-owner-style buildings are not very good, but there are romances and nostalgia peculiar to this age.
Many of the pseudo-style buildings have been lost due to war damage and disasters, but there are also things that are still present and rebuilt, so there may be a lot of fans secretly.

Bricks expected to have fire resistance are too brittle against large earthquakes

Another feature of the architecture in the Meiji era is that bricks were used in many ways.

Mainly used for a certain range such as Ginza brick street, expecting fire resistance.
However, since the buildings in brick buildings that were in the vicinity of Tokyo due to the Great Kanto Earthquake disappeared all the way, it will change to reinforced concrete construction after that.

The exception is the Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse.
It was Kanagawa Prefecture that the largest number of houses destroyed during the Great Kanto Earthquake was Kanagawa Prefecture, but the Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse was about 30% destroyed in the 1st warehouse.

There are also many brick buildings that have been reused since the modern day, for those that have escaped warfare and natural disasters outside of Tokyo.
Kobe's brick warehouse restaurant streets are typical examples.

Although not limited to the Meiji era, topics of clothing, shelters and livelihoods will drift away with scenes such as dramas and novels and "Endlessly memorized just before testing", but a bit of background is hidden Thing.

If you see it in your daily life or traveling, it may be interesting to try stopping a little bit.

Chitose Changchun

Reference: The national history major dictionary "Civilization opening" civilization opening / wikipedia pseudo-style building / wikipedia

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