New Union Jiu-Jitsu competitor, black belt Marcelino Freitas returned to the competitive scene in October, after a period dedicated only to his academy and his students. Telino, as his teammates call him, was victorious International Master, Sydney Open and Pan Pacific, all organized by the IBJJF.
Marcelino took the opportunity to comment on his recent performances, in addition to flirting with another participation in the IBJJF World Championship in 2018.
"I've always liked to compete since I started, when I was 12, and today, at 35, it's always good to get into a competition and feel that adrenaline that still runs in the blood. But as for fighting the World Cup, it's different for me these days. I even wanted to, but I believe that in any sport you have the peak of your career, that you will be there disputing of equal to equal with your opponents, winning or losing. It is very important for you to know when it is time to stop. When I say stop, it is not to retire. Competitions with the World Cup, you have to dedicate yourself and have a lot of discipline. I have other priorities these days. But I always think of trying one more time. I only had the opportunity to fight the black belt world championship for three years, when I was already living here in Australia. I wanted to have fought more, but because of some of the team's policies a few years ago and the change from the World Cup to the United States … It was even difficult because I did not have much financial support. But I think of fighting once again, "says Marcelino, who has been practicing Jiu-Jitsu since he was 12.
At age 35 and with important career titles such as CBJJ's Brazilian, Marcelinho has valuable lessons to take to the next generation. For him, the mental part is an essential aspect for a high-performance fighter. Adept to The BJJ Mental Coach, movement by Jiu-Jitsu black belt Gustavo Dantas, Marcelino uncovers the benefits of a strong mind on and off the mats.
"Having a good head is key in any competitive sport. Some people assimilate very well, but others not so much. You may be overly physically and technically trained and if your head is not good, you will not perform well. One of the things I do with myself is always to make my mind believe, to enjoy that moment on the mat, which is unique, and not let the mind make comparisons between myself and my opponents. From the comparisons come the excuses, which lead you to the negative side. I believe that if I had this job of the BJJ Mental Coach since the beginning of my career, some results could be more positive. The material that Gustavo shares has a super positive value not only in Jiu-Jitsu but also for day-to-day life. This work of Gustavo Dantas has a very important credit in my return to the competitions, "Marcelino details
For 7 years in Melbourne, Australia, Marcelino has done an analysis of the old and the current Jiu-Jitsu, which lives the era of the cash prizes and appreciation of the athletes, and also highlighted the growth of soft art on Earth of the Kangaroos. "
"Jiu-Jitsu has grown a lot since I arrived here and some Brazilians arrived almost at the same time, which helps in this growth. Australia has many talents and Jiu-Jitsu keeps growing, which is good for the sport. On the world stage … It's great to see the growth of the sport that we love and see so many people living in Jiu-Jitsu. I remember that a few years ago many people fought for love of the sport and nowadays Jiu-Jitsu is very professional and technically very strong, which is very good for this new generation. This makes the competitions well contested and full of new talent in all the tracks, "concludes Marcelino, before projecting the year 2018.
"For 2018, I want first a lot of health for me and my family, enjoy life and if everything goes well, I want to fight some championships in Australia and suddenly in Brazil. And train and dedicate myself to my students at the gym where I work. "
Marcelino also won the IBJJF World Championship in blue, purple and brown, the Brazilian Championship for Teams for the fourth consecutive year (1998, 2000, 2002, 2003), in addition to the titles in the Brazilian Championship in the blue belt, brown and black.
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Various Western culture entered in the Meiji era – it is familiar "history civilization" even in the class of history.
Some of them are still in use (predecessor), others are gone and disappeared with the flow of the times … ….
Following the food, clothing & shelter of the Meiji era of yesterday, this time Let's look at the railway, gas light, electric of the Meiji era.
Train ~ Origin is the Edo Shogunate? Perry gives a model
The railway is made for commercial & economic purposes.
And this is only a modern viewpoint, it was greatly related to the military purpose in the Meiji era.
Originally the railroad vision was introduced in the latter part of the Edo period.
The shogunate was acquiring information with some twists, "There is something called the railroad in the West, which is used for these purposes."
Afterwards, models of railroads were brought to Yokohama as deliverables to the general at the time of Perry's flight, and trial operation was done.
Also, in Nagasaki I was modeling in my country based on the model brought from Russian fleet.
At this point, than the railway itself
"Can you study a steam engine to make a more advanced warship"
It seems that the purpose was strong.
Therefore, the Satsuma clan and the Fukuoka clan made models, and the Choshu clan · Kaga clan purchased a locomotive model … … secretly attracted attention.
Shimazu Yoshinagi etc were actively trying to preempt Western civilization, so maybe I was touched by the big drama "Saigo Don" next year … ….
In any case, it did not come out suddenly in the Meiji era, but due to the fact that the American American mission of the end of the Edo era and the European mission of the European Union actually entered the railroad,
"If we can introduce this to Japan, will it be useful in various ways?"
It was supposed to be thought.
incorporate the British style railway that was successful in India
And the Edo shogunate was not merely an idea.
We have set up a railroad construction plan, and concrete plans were also submitted from foreigners who came in and out at this time.
Unfortunately, before that by Tokugawa Yoshihiro to the Great Government Refund the shogunate itself will disappear, so we did not realize ….
Meanwhile, foreigners who had the plan submitted something similar to the Meiji government.
The partner that the new government chose as a partner is the UK.
A meeting was held with Harry Parks, the British minister in Tokyo, and construction will be decided in Meiji 2.
That was why the UK at the time had already experienced many railroads in India.
However, the Meiji Government that just started up was in short supply of funds, and the opposition from inside was persistent.
Indeed, there were too many things to do and there was no money at all, and it was a lack of circumstances, and when introducing a completely new thing, the opinion "It is wasteful to spend money on such things !!" is a strong one .
So the government has financed funds with foreign bonds (foreign borrowing), and completed in such a way in 1872.
Japan 's first railway opened between Shimbashi and Yokohama.
After that it was fragmentedly opened, and I tried the following list.
· Meiji 7 (1874) Osaka ~ Kobe
· Meiji 10 (1877) Kyoto ~ Osaka ※ Southwest War
· Meiji 13 (1880) Otsu ~ Kyoto
· Meiji 13 (1880) Nagahama – Kanegasaki (Tsuruga Port)
At that time, merely connecting the cities, the city and the harbor did not play a role as a means of transportation across the whole of the country or region.
So the surprising event will be a boost to the railroad.
It is a familiar southwest war in Saigo Takamori.
Actually, at that time, the Army became aggressive in railroad construction as it realized the convenience of land transportation by railroad.
When the country goes back to the forefront, attention will be gained by the private sector and business entrepreneurs will start investing.
With such a trend, private railroads also increased in the Meiji 20 or so, and the private distance was longer than the public (national) railway business distance.
Military transportation is more important after two wars
Although it is a railway that grew steadily, the private railway company was also hit hard by the crisis in Meiji 23 and temporarily the railway industry stagnated.
Until this time, the railroad-related department was responsible for the Ministry of Industry, the railroad agency was newly established and independent.
In the meantime, between the Shinbashi – Kobe between Kawato & Takasaki – Naoetsu, private railway Ueno – Aomori etc. opened, and the domestic transportation was greatly developed.
The distance that took tens of days until the Edo period has been shortened much, which also leads to the activation of flow of people and goods, and the movement of money.
Furthermore, the usefulness of military transportation was again proved in the Sino-Japanese War (1894) & the Russo-Japanese War (1904) and the public economy Due to worsening, private railroads, which had seventeen companies, became state-owned, and the standards were unified.
After the Sino-Japanese War, Taiwan and Korea, after the Russo-Japanese War, part of the northeastern part of China, a railroad was laid by Japan. I feel that this neighborhood is indeed involved with the army.
Incidentally, it is a while later that a Japanese subway is born.
Although it seems there was a plan in the Taisho era, the start was delayed by the Great Kanto Earthquake, etc. and finally started business in the early Showa era.
Although it is still sweet, Iino Shiori who plays Mr. Ikuo Takahashi in the morning dora "Iro Tenka" is a model of Kobu Kobayashi who will be the manager of Hankyu Electric Railway later.
He made the state-owned Hanzul railway private railway and contributed greatly to the development of the Kansai region. For details, refer to the following article.
Model of Shiratori Inai Shiori (Takahashi Issei) Commentary on the 84th year of Kobayashi Izo's lifetime!
Gas light – after all the first time is Yokohama
It may be a daily necessity that ordinary people felt the most civilization opening up.
It is a gas light and a lamp.
You can feel the romantic like Meiji and Taisho era.
Gas lights are written lights, like lighting fixtures using gas.
As a streetlight, the businessman in Yokohama asked the French design, and in the Meiji 5 the first time it was installed and used within a certain range.
Although it seems there was a gas light used at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, it was not considered permanent, so it is not regarded as "domestic first".
After successful in Yokohama, gas lamps as street lamps were made in several places in Tokyo, and after that they were also used indoors.
Also, the luminosity has been improved.
However, because the production of gas has not yet been able to catch up, the households used lamps throughout the Meiji Period.
There was a work called "lighting husband" turning around with a gas light in the evening and it was one of the longing professions of the common people.
It may be because the gas lamp itself was not in a general household.
Later, as gas lamps emerged and further improvement of power generation technology enabled the transmission of power to long distances, gas lamps will be lost in the Taisho era as early as possible.
Currently there are parts left for sightseeing or reprints as a part of directing.
Let's be one of the disappearing civilization.
Electricity – Actually hydroelectric power was active from that time
Civilization opening that is most important and still remains for modern society will be electricity (electric power business).
Originally started in the United States in 1879, the first electric power company in Japan was built four years later, in 1883.
Because of the lack of funds, the actual opening of business will take place three more years, but it is not a birthplace but has been introduced from the early stage.
Electric power company's business performance also improved steadily due to the fact that electricity was used to illuminate office buildings and wealthy people.
In response to this, the establishment of a power company is proceeding in Osaka and Kobe too.
By the way, the electricity charge at that time was 17 yen / month at 9 watts.
Since 10 kg of rice is 1 yen + α, the initial salary of the public servant was 50 yen, it is expensive because it is a story.
Still, "Electricity has less risk of fire and easy to handle" and it was attractive to many people, so the number of users increased steadily.
Main power generation at that time was due to fire power.
However, as the price of coal rises, the cost increases drastically, and the performance of electric power companies will start to decline.
For this reason, Kyoto City considered "whether it can generate electricity using the water of Lake Biwa", and hydroelectric power generation began in the twentieth century.
Thermal power generation is mainly carried out at night, and hydroelectric power generation can be generated and transmitted regardless of day and night, enabling power supply for 24 hours continuous.
Thanks to these technological improvements, we succeeded in reducing the cost by 30 to 40% compared to thermal power generation. This further increased the number of users and the profit of electric power companies improved.
It may be a Japanese-like idea to keep an eye on hydroelectric power generation.
More than half of total power output is covered by hydroelectric power in the 44th year of Meiji. And this situation continued for a while and until the 1960s Japan was centered on hydroelectric power generation.
"The method that was born in the Meiji Era was mainstream until the period of high growth period"
I think it is quite a great story.
Due to the possibility of mass power generation, the electricity which was mainly used for lighting until now has become available for industrial use as well.
Make electricity at the power plant and send it to the factory, the factory manufactures goods, sells it, invests the money in the electric power company, and makes new power plants and technology – just the cycle of capital.
Since the hydropower station takes several years from planning to opening up, there was also a time lag, but considering the time to get the profitable and profitable amount of money to invest in the factory would not have been such a bad story either.
In this way, the life of the Japanese has gradually approached the present age.
Focusing on "the food, clothing and shelter" in the Meiji Era – What changed from the Edo period What went on?
Reference: National Railroad Dictionary "Railroad" "Electric power business" "Gas light" civilization opening / wikipedia railroad / wikipedia gas light / wikipedia
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Next weekend, ACB Jiu-Jitsu will host its last event of the 2017 season, but the GP will not be the only attraction of the week in Moscow. The Berkut organization will be promoting the first edition of the ACBJJ NOGI World Championship, an open event that will begin on December 6 and will feature all-round disputes and weight categories similar to those of the GP and with disputes in the absolute
As in every Jiu-Jitsu event, the presence of the Brazilians in the competition raises the level of the event, and in the ACBJJ Nogi World Championship is no different. The organization invited great Brazilian names to compose the list of participants in the categories purple, brown and black. The BJJForum brings a summary of all Brazilians who will participate in the matches in the purple and brown belt, as well as a summary of all categories in the black belt.
Team Cicero Costha sent two promising athletes to the Berkut Worlds. Jonas Andrade (Category up to 60 kg) and Jeferson Guaresi (Category up to 75 kg) will represent the team in Moscow. Another Brazilian in the dispute is Guilherme Andrade (Felipe Preguiça Team), who will compete in the category over 95 kg.
With many Brazilians in contention, the duels in the brown belt promise a great technical level and exciting contests. In the category up to 60 kg, the highlights are Carlos "Bebeto" Silva (GFTEAM), Paulo Ricardo (Zenith) and Kalel dos Santos (Cicero Costha). In the category up to 65 kg, Gabriel Sousa (ZR Team) and Jonata Gomes (Checkmat) will represent Brazil in the race against the Russians who dominate the category.
In the category up to 75 kg, Jonnatas Gracie (Atos), Nathan Chueng (Brasa CTA) and Rodrigo Costa (Gracie Barra) are the three Brazilians enrolled in the most crowded category of the brown belt.
In the category up to 85 kg, Serbian Túlio (Gracie Barra) and Gustavo Maron (Alliance) are Brazilians in contention. Serbian was lucky in the draw and will enter the dispute in the semi-final, while Maron will be competing in the quarterfinals.
In the category up to 95 kg, Kaynan Duarte (Atos) appears as a favorite franchise for the title. Gabriel Almeida (Checkmat) and Pedro Rocha (Soul Fighters) will try to prevent Kaynan's triumph.
In the category over 95 kg, Leonardo Lemos (Gracie Barra), Victor Hugo (Ribeiro Jiu-Jitsu) and Renan Vieira (Atos) will represent Brazil in the duel against the Russians.
For the black belts, a good performance at the ACBJJ Nogi Championship can serve as a springboard for future appearances in the GPs promoted by the organization of the event. In addition to great names who are new to Berkut events, we have the names of some veterans who have participated in previous GPs, some quite successfully. Check the analyzes of the categories
Up to 60 kg
In a duel of generations, Leandro Tatu (Soul Fighters) and Pedro Dias (Caio Terra) will make the eliminatory contest of the category. The winner will face Rodnei Junior (Qatar BJJ).
Up to 65 kg
Paulo Miyao (Cicero Costha / Unity) is the main name of the category up to 65 kg Berkut World. Paulo has already been champion of the two GP's that happened this year. Only this fact already credence as the main favorite to the title. Kim Terra (Caio Terra), Pablo Mantovani (Atos) and Alexandre Vieira (Brazilian Top Team), will try to stop Paulo in the race for gold.
Up to 75 kg
Hugo Marques (Soul Fighters), Rafael Mansur (Brotherhood), Gabriel "Palito" Rollo (Checkmat) and Fernando Pena (Gracie Barra) are the main fighters in the title race up to 75 kg. Hugo Marques had no luck in the draw and will have to do an extra fight against Russian Yusup Saadulaev.
Up to 85 kg
With names of the newest generation, the category up to 85 kg will have the presence of only three athletes. The winner of the duel between Gustavo Braguinha (Brotherhood) against Canadian Dante Leon (GFTEAM) will set the finalist, who will face Lucas Rocha (ZR Team).
Up to 95 kg
Patrick Gaudio (GFTEAM) will face Helton Jose (Unity) and on the other side of the key, Arnaldo Maidana (Checkmat) will face Daniel Thebit (Gracie Barra). The winners of each match will make the final of the category.
Over 95 kg
Max Gimenis (GFTEAM) will face Muhammad Kerimov (Agate Team). The winner of the duel will face in the final the winner of the confrontation between Gabriel Fedor (Checkmat) and Leandro Pedrosa (Brotherhood).
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In the Meiji Era, it was an era when the common people also felt many major changes.
Although I am a little away from the examination and the flow of politics, knowing the lives of the people in those days is also fantastic.
It seems that you can taste the creations depicting this era more deeply, such as the 2018 Taiga Drama "Saigo Dori".
Let's look at "clothing, food, and housing" that changed during the Meiji Era this time.
Regarding changes in clothes, it is popularization of clothes.
First of all, the imperial family and government's formal clothes were treated as clothes, and at the same time uniforms of public institutions, such as soldiers, station staff, postal staff, etc, were also decorated as western clothing.
The way people in these professions seen around the town wear clothes will eventually be accepted by ordinary people and become longing.
In the Meiji 11 year (1878)
"Kimono such as a bunko is made a vest and the western clothing is dressed as regular"
The law was made.
The banner is a formal wardrobe of the royal family and the officials who were born during the Heian period, and the Emperor is still worn during ritual occasion.
There is also a thing called "prohibition (Kinjiki) " that only the Emperor and the Crown Prince can wear.
Also in the case of women, the formal clothes of noble people became clothes.
In the Meiji 14th year (1881), we are told that "When senior officials accompany their wife in a public place, they are wearing clothing".
Koyokon diplomacy is the story after that.
Until then noble women did not go out of the house, but in the western party the wife was accompanied by theory, so Japan was supposed to follow it as well.
In other cases, clothes were used for nurses, but it did not spread easily to other women.
There are two main reasons why women's clothing was delayed.
Ukiyo-e painting the Kanonkan / quoted from wikipedia
Problems and hairstyle problems still remain, introduction is delayed
One is the aspect of price and scarcity.
Early in the Meiji period, it was difficult to get Western dresses and clothes even at Kurosawa .
It takes a lot of time to obtain and wear, so at the time of the famous "KOKOKANBO diplomacy" (foreign policy of "you must be recognized as a civilized country if you dance Western in Western-style buildings") The dress used in Japan seems to have been out of fashion already in the West.
In addition to the policies of the Kogankan diplomacy, it was cold eyes or lost smiles from Western countries. Unlike now, information does not convey soon.
Another problem is the hair style.
In the case of men, if you cut and prepare 髷 (marrow), you can make it 【Scattering Head】, but the idea of "cutting a female hair straight and cutting it as a shortcut" does not exist in this age.
A woman cuts his hair short (shaves) = becoming a birthplace.
It was similar in Europe, and the women's short hair became popular after the First World War.
Therefore, in the case of women, it was necessary to improve the hairstyle that would suit the clothing as well as the cost reduction of the clothes.
Various styles were invented as well as until the Edo period, and there were several hairstyles that were easy to match even in kimono or Western wear.
A little interesting place, Hair style "two hundred and three highlands (髷)" has appeared around the time of the Russo-Japanese Warfare .
It is a hairstyle with a sense of humor, like reminiscent of an example highland.
Although the wardrobe made progress little by little in this way, people who wear clothes in uniforms also liked Japanese clothing in private, and it was not spread as much as now.
Even in comics set in the Showa era such as Sazae and others, the appearance frequency of Japanese clothes is high, are not it?
On the other hand, Japanese-style creativity style unique to this age, such as "female students of boots in hakama" and "Inverness court above Japanese clothes" is also born.
If you dress like this with your creations, you are familiar enough to imagine the imagery "Meiji or Taisho story talks" soon.
Actually, in other Asian countries this style of eclectic existed.
It seems there were "Western hats in Han costumes" in China and "Turban in western clothing" in India.
I feel that such a thing as the nature of Asian at that time could not be felt, or pride.
Speaking of the topic of food in this era, it is probably popularization of meat eclipses.
There was also a purpose of improving the physique as a reason why the government recommended meat eating besides "becoming a civilized person".
"Westerners are doing a good physique" = "They eat meat often" = "Japanese people can improve their physique if they eat more meat?" → "(Picone!) So It was an association that I could become a strong country! " I also got such advice from foreigners.
Unfortunately, it was after the war when the average height approached that of the West, but well … the average does not rise so suddenly.
However, this is because the Asian group has increased in the West and the average has fallen there.
Dissemination of carnivorism has led to an improvement in the physique.
However, in modern times, the theory that 'westernization of food becomes the cause of various diseases' has come out, and the sense of balance has become more important.
Japanese food tends to have high salinity instead of low energy.
In the military, it is said that Westernization has advanced in the ocean from the land.
This was the navy minister Saigo Road said that the "Navy should go to Ueno's nurse and get used to western food".
If anything, the Navy has a number of diplomatic rituals, and was he anticipating such a thing?
It was a military doctor in the Army Mori Ogai said that Japanese people are more suitable for Japanese people and that they should endanger the harm of Western foods, so the spread has been delayed.
This is the most difficult thing because it is not wrong as a result of this.
You can not eat meat! And those who rush into the Imperial Palace
In general, there was also strong resistance to committing the prohibition of "not to eat livestock" for more than 1000 years.
when the Imperial Family started meat eclipses, there was even a person who charged (physically) to the Imperial Palace, saying, "The government is outrageous to eat dirty meat! God 's blessing will end! Says.
If it is a modern day, it will end with Tsukkodo "Fake News!", But at that time it was an unusual way of thinking.
Why did it spread?
It seems that there were many such feelings ↓
Mr. A gets courage to eat beef
"Let's recommend it to our wife for good!"
A's wife B "It is ridiculous to eat meat of beef! I am disappointed!"
Mr. A "I'm really good ('· ω ·`) If you say good for your health, will you eat it? "
A, "Hey guys, you probably said you are in a bad condition so far, because you said beef is going to be a medicine, do you want to eat it?"
Mr. B "Is that so? Just a little … … It's delicious!" (Terettele!)
Mr. B "Why have not you eaten so much?"
Mr. A "Planned"
Actually, until the Edo period, miso pickled beef was made as medicinal for Hikone clan and others.
Since there is a record that we ate chicken as "medicine eating" also during the Warring States Period, it was known that meat is good for nourishment tonic.
Nonetheless there seems to be reasons other than that the Japanese did not want to eat the meat of the livestock, "It is forbidden for a thousand years."
"There are few plains in Japan's land so it was not easy to pastoralize"
"To cultivate what human beings can eat in the natural environment as well, I could not think of mass-producing feed grains"
This neighborhood seems to be related.
It may also be one of the reasons that sheep that is frequently used in cooking in China & sheep that is excellent as livestock did not inhabit much in Japan.
Like Japan, there are similar trends in Taiwan with many island countries & mountainous areas.
Although he had eaten pork for a long time in Taiwan, he often eat goats that can live not in sheep but also in mountainous areas. Also, as for cows, as in Japan, it seems that the idea of "There is no way to eat animals that will help farm work!"
In modern times there is also the influence of Chinese cuisine, we eat cattle also in Taiwan, but there are a lot of people who resist resistance to eating sheep.
Even food culture, you can know the flow of history.
In the Meiji Era, Japan was able to solve some of these technical, historical and cultural reasons, and carnivorous progress was made.
Also, as with western and Western cuisine of clothes, Japan's unique arrangement was added to food.
It is said that the famous beef pot as an example of civilization opening was applying seasoning such as miso which was often used for game meat to beef.
After that, it changed to seasoned with soy sauce and sugar as the center, and it changed to Sukiyaki and continued to the present age.
As it is said that "modern shopping once in a lifetime" also in modern times, there was no change in clothing or eating about houses.
but when you expand your field of vision to architectural relations, you can see the influence of the West as well.
Until the Meiji 20s, the form of "pseudo-style building" was often used.
It is not a "fake" or "fake" meaning "fake" but "pseudo" meaning "to make it similar".
If you speak in a quiet way of saying "What is it like western style architecture?" It is an architectural style often used for public institutions such as schools and post offices.
While retaining the characteristics of Japanese architecture such as wooden, plaster and roof tile, western style spiers etc are attached.
In the middle of the Meiji era more Western Western building technology came in, so the buildings of this kind gradually became less.
Just like the Kodokan diplomacy, from the Westerners it can not be said that pseudo-owner-style buildings are not very good, but there are romances and nostalgia peculiar to this age.
Many of the pseudo-style buildings have been lost due to war damage and disasters, but there are also things that are still present and rebuilt, so there may be a lot of fans secretly.
Bricks expected to have fire resistance are too brittle against large earthquakes
Another feature of the architecture in the Meiji era is that bricks were used in many ways.
Mainly used for a certain range such as Ginza brick street, expecting fire resistance.
However, since the buildings in brick buildings that were in the vicinity of Tokyo due to the Great Kanto Earthquake disappeared all the way, it will change to reinforced concrete construction after that.
The exception is the Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse.
It was Kanagawa Prefecture that the largest number of houses destroyed during the Great Kanto Earthquake was Kanagawa Prefecture, but the Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse was about 30% destroyed in the 1st warehouse.
There are also many brick buildings that have been reused since the modern day, for those that have escaped warfare and natural disasters outside of Tokyo.
Kobe's brick warehouse restaurant streets are typical examples.
Although not limited to the Meiji era, topics of clothing, shelters and livelihoods will drift away with scenes such as dramas and novels and "Endlessly memorized just before testing", but a bit of background is hidden Thing.
If you see it in your daily life or traveling, it may be interesting to try stopping a little bit.
Reference: The national history major dictionary "Civilization opening" civilization opening / wikipedia pseudo-style building / wikipedia
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One of the most famous foreign researchers in the Meiji Era Edward Morse
To discover Omori Kaizuka is one of common sense to be learned in the history of elementary school students.
Therefore, I receive an impression made as a scholar as much as possible, indeed, as for portrait photography it is such atmosphere Atami man, but on the other hand, leaving a diary, it is interesting even if the Japanese / Japanese review in it is reading now Yes.
I would like to look back on footsteps of Morse and and what was written in the diary today.
I have chased a few kinds of arms and legs in America
Edward Morse is an American zoologist.
It is famous as a discoverer of "Omori Kaizuka" in Ota Ward, Tokyo.
He originally came to Japan in 1877 to collect specimens of "arms and legs".
A brachial animal is an animal that does not resemble a bivalve and inhabited a great many in Japan.
According to Maws' valve, "There are only one type in the USA, but there are 3 to 40 types in Japan." Well, it's a scholar's soul.
I made a laboratory in Enoshima and was asked by the Japanese who received Morse's open lecture at the University of Michigan once, "I want you to become a university professor at the University of Tokyo", and it is now traveling back and forth between Japan and the United States every certain period It was.
The detailed sketched diary that he left is "Japan day by day".
Among them, Morse wrote many impressions of Japan's nature and people at that time, regardless of size.
There are also scholarly curiosity and observation eyes, and there are also many points that make Mos think that it was a straightforward person, there are parts that make me feel pleasant.
Although I think that I am busy with research and collection, I could hardly write like this, but in fact he is also the owner of an outrageous skill of "writing and drawing letters and pictures at the same time with both hands". did. What envy it.
○ Japan and Japanese's beauty points
let's introduce some of the beauty and faults he felt while living in Japan at that time.
Even the civilians are polite to foreigners
Morse is impressed repeatedly, as the farmers greet themselves after removing them all from their heads, and that people who will see foreigners for the first time do not arouse contempt and ridicule.
"If the Japanese were going out in the States, they would have a completely different response, I am ashamed of it
As I wrote in that way, it seems that this was a good culture shock in a nice sense.
It is unavoidable from the values of the race at that time.
· Physical strength and intelligence of pilgrim crawlers and car husbands
Moses seems to be very surprised, at that time the Japanese were outstandingly smaller than the Westerners, so that only a few people would do the brute force work.
In addition, those in these occupations are so-called blue collars, and in the West and the West in those days, it was almost that they can do only that work · not do it.
However, "In Japan, it was able to accomplish the collection and classification help by properly explaining the car owner and the chores of miscellaneous", so Mohs gathers so many specimens Have you succeeded?
· Japanese love nature
When Morse was traveling around Harima, I saw a large eagle stop at a pine tree.
Then, it seems that the Japanese travelers who were walking in the past began to draw out the writing instruments to collect all their eagles.
Morse thought that "Westerners would have wanted a hunting gun" and felt again the difference in culture.
· Students are serious and enthusiastic
From the first day I arrived at the University of Tokyo, most of the students were working diligently on lectures, so it seems that I felt great rewarding.
It seems that it was difficult only to have to do the same lecture twice because he was responsible for two classes of 45 people.
Even when I lectured on Darwin's theory of evolution, I was deeply moved by the fact that most students eagerly picked up notes and then applauded greatly after the conclusion, "My cheek got hotter."
In addition, the landscaping technology such as transplantation and the cleanliness of the town etc are written in contradiction so that it will be conveyed that you would have been impressed.
○ Disadvantages of Japanese and Japanese people
Of course, I do not just praise them for letting go.
I am obediently writing what I felt strangely from his eyes.
· the number of insects
Mos is staying at private houses and inns, for example traveling to Nikko, but it says that it was a difficulty for insect bites every time. Sometimes dozens of places were stabbed in some cases.
If you are a clean person, you may have hated Japan at that time. The text of Morse is very calm, so I do not know if I had a disgust.
· Slow motion
Perhaps because I was not used to it yet, it seems that there were not many concepts of "avoiding" a horse-drawn carriage and a rickshaw in the Japanese at the time, and it seemed that they were likely to be run over.
Some foreigners like Morse tried to avoid it, some people were amazed at the agility of the move.
Besides, it seems that everything in everyday life was slow.
However, he wrote that "Because they are both polite and gentle people, I can not feel like raising tantrums."
· About the noise of the night
Morse seems to have felt that there seems to be no point of view that "sleeping of neighboring residents and cohabitants is hindered by the opening and closing sound of sliding doors and sliding doors, banging bangs, etc."
The reason seems to have been thought that "Japanese houses are open and easy to transmit sounds" and "I think that it is due to the nature of the Japanese who would not protest even though it is annoying", and it is still rage Is not … At least on the sentences.
Other comparisons between Chinese and Japanese are also frequent. Rather than attaching superiority or inferiority, is it "a difference between the Japanese and the Chinese people Morse noticed"?
· Differences between Japan and China
"In the Yokohama settlement, Japanese people are doing most of the work, but there are many Chinese in places where money such as currency exchange is involved."
"In the world, the Chinese are the longest senior cooks speed and fake coin selection"
I am doing.
The Qing of this time was already a feeling, but there were a lot of Chinese who have living a strong living by starting a new life across the United States, finding a job at a foreign settlement in Japan .
Even in modern times, around Mr. Morse 's word is correct, I am making many Chinatowns around the world, there are many Chinese who are economically successful.
There is another place which compares Japan and China on the linguistic side.
"There is no sound of" L "in Japanese, there is no sound of" R "in Chinese, so they are not good at English."
In modern times, it is difficult to distinguish L and R pronunciations right? What about the Chinese people?
What you felt at the destination and Japanese food etc
In addition to this, the life scenery of the travel destination in urban areas and fishing villages where Morse stayed and the destination in Japan is written in detail.
"Overtake the West and Overtake!"
"Imitating the West and becoming a civilized country!"
Even while being joked, there were people like Morse who felt "old good Japan" and evaluated it and left it behind.
Of course it is also important to incorporate good points you learn from other countries, but I also want to leave the goodness of Japan.
Finally, shall we introduce himself a bit of a mysterious thing?
For Morse, shellfish and other marine organisms were "subjects of study".
However, when I came to Japan, I heard that it is "food of the common people", he himself said that he tried to do things.
It seems that "taste is not bad", and seems to have been challenging Japanese foods often after that.
As a Westerner in this era, it would have been quite a rare type.
"I've eaten only rice with sweet potatoes and eggplants and fish for the past two weeks"
Although it seems that there seemed to be a weakness at the time of bingeism, before the way back to America, at the farewell party where Japanese professors opened for Morse, I actively mentioned Japanese food again.
It seems that he liked the sea bream, Yurihime and Matcha in this case.
Especially as for Yuri Roots, "I will be a wonderful substitute for potatoes" and I am praising it.
I think that it is somewhat different from the modern one, but the potato and the lily root … … are similar ……? Although it will be close in the sense of root vegetables.
Of course, he did not accept all of the Japanese food.
Among those sent out at this farewell party, I clearly wrote that "Ginkgo was disgusting."
Well, this is divided among likes and dislikes even Japanese.
In a farewell dinner on another day, he said he taught each other's country's hands while cheering cigars, coffee, and alcohol after meals.
I play fun sumo wrestling playing, playing with a couple of legs, … and a scenery of funny play is spelled out.
Considering that almost all university professors, including Morse, were there, it was unnecessary.
Everyone had a boy 's heart in a good sense, I guess.
Besides, I saw government troops who returned from the Southwest War Emperor Meiji was the first to watch fireworks at the birthday ceremony of the Emperor There are also a lot of episodes to show you.
"Japan that day that day" is a perfect book for those who "want to read the history articles that are not" study ".
Bunko version is out so if you are interested, please do.
Edward. Sylvester · Morse Kodansha 2013-06-11
Sales Ranking: 264389
Copyright © 2017 BUSHOO! JAPAN (Military Japan) All Rights Reserved.
Anyone knows it, and once touches the eyes.
There are not many taste tastes.
Is not it Rakugo?
Certainly, Okiri of "smile point" has become familiar with nature since childhood, and can also enjoy it on CDs and DVDs if you care.
Or it's not difficult to go to the theater.
Sorry, I will not take that first step.
There is no intention to say "Rakugo is fun if you ask it once!
That is not the case, it is history that made me interested simply.
How and when did Rakugo, who is in a king-like position of traditional arts alongside Kabuki, started and gained popularity?
First of all I tried back to the origin.
Origin "Huge Crowd" Hideyoshi had a lot
Show funny strange stories and performances, make a powerful person laugh.
As it were, the effect of relaxation by laughter was anywhere in the east and west of the Western world.
In Japan, there were people called fathers during the Warring States Period.
They are gambling stories of the countries and existence to tell a story. It is sort of like a human radio.
Not particularly familiar with academics when I was young Toyotomi Hideyoshi was supposed to have many fathers, for example, familiar with comics " to Ukemono " Orihara Oribe ( Quinta Rui ) was one of them.
Or Sogori Shinemakon is also a famous rakugo character.
By the way the word "fairy tale" was meant to mean a story that adults talked to children like today, since the Meiji era, before the Edo period "meaning a story that the Midget Tells You" was.
When the world of war is over and enters the Edo era, the role of these experts in talking also changes.
I became to be asked for the role of entertainer who specializes in funny stories rather than role like news casters telling the situation and information of each country.
Originally, it was made of "Aihoku" of Akira etc.
So where did the original story of that funny funny story come from?
At that time, there were humor and jokes collections that existed.
"Sleeping sleepy laugh" that was established during the Yuanwa years of the Edo period is one of precious story origin. Author 's Anakuan tepido (Penguin Ansakuton) is considered as the founder of the rakugo family.
The collection of lucky stories from China was also the original story, "Lolu" that was established at the end of the Ming Dynasty was a state-of-the-art comedy book at the time.
For example, "bunny scary" or "wild bleached" is an adaptation of the "lol-fu" episode that summarizes Ming Dynasty's laughter.
The knowledge layer, which has opportunities to contact Chinese books, was supposed to laugh.
"Bunru" 's "Manjuu scary" original book / quoted from wikipedia
And in the latter half of the seventeenth century, people who can also be called rakugo's fathers will appear in Edo, Kyoto and Osaka (Namba).
They received money from the audience at a place where people gather, such as the streets and temples, and showed off a funny funny story.
We call this form of talking on the street "Tsujiki (no tie)". We showed not only the story, but also imitation and the like.
Even though there was a prototype of "Rakugo" at this time, it was not necessarily specialized only for talking.
A "husband" who plays an active role as a musical producer and a racist is a situation in which his hobby was made profitable.
"Father of Rakugo Zakonryu" This is also a carpenter 's husband.
The horse raise launched the "Kai no Kai".
Although we had a regular laughter meeting, it is just another step before completion of rakugo.
The birth of "vaudeville" and "rakugo family"
Kanari year (end of the 18th century), the vaude is finally born.
Until then, when we talked about the conversation, it was a period of time to borrow a restaurant and a rental seat and to start occasionally as a business to identify the place and collect admission fee.
When collecting entrance fees on a regular basis, the performers can not do it in one hand.
In order not to let the audience who became repeater get bored, it becomes necessary to devise ingenuity in the program.
In Edo, the first generation of Sanshtei is easy.
At the top is the first generation, Katsura Katsura.
With them as a shadow, more sophisticated rakugo families are born one after another, both Edo and upward.
Thus the level of rakugo rises further, the venue expanded from one to the next.
It became familiar as common people's entertainment.
However, reform of Tsunobo Mizuno and Tenpo will start so that the water gets away.
This policy, which severely restricted the entertainment of the common people, is also targeting the vouchers, and "Temporary councils" has been issued in the Tempo 13 (1842).
As a truly an ordinary people, this did not hide the rebound.
The no-vetting ban was abolished in two and a half years. The vaude who regained its momentum will reappear again as if releasing the accumulated energy.
At the Meiji Restoration It also changed rakugo in Sangutatei Yoritomi
The period will eventually end the turbulent period of the end of Edo period.
Assassination and terrorism rampant, and Ueno war and Boshin war also broke out.
Did I also want to blow away such unstable society?
Common people in urban areas enjoyed Rakugo.
However, when the Meiji comes, the situation changes. The new government issued a rakugo ban.
However, it seems that it was not even strictly observed
Among the very leather called Meiji Restoration, only Rakugo can not be stopped.
Edo's first generation, Sanjitte Yu-kyo who played an active part in this turbulent period changed the storytelling style.
Until then it was the mainstream that imitated Kabuki, with elements such as "play", rumors, props and costumes.
I switched to the one that plays it only with one fan-tongue / tongue like present as in "Yuan" in Yeonnam.
Soon this "prime" became the mainstream, "the play" was obsolete.
first generation · Sanjitte Yoroda / wikipedia quoted from
As a result of the Meiji Restoration, the Shogunate and its families have decreased from Edo, and instead the number of graduates from the new government related Satsuma increased.
Then, the popular genre of Rakugo also changes.
I got to receive puns, a great exaggerated thing, rather than a moist personality.
In the Meiji 10 's, a rakugo family who got up and gave a strange gesture was received, rather than the original story, "Jinja Shiten King".
The review of traditional programs will also proceed and will be changed to be brighter and more comfortable with a stubborn taste.
In parallel, new storyteller also increased.
fierce factional fight occurred in both Tokyo and above
When it comes to the Meiji 10s, rakugo factions will be made in both Tokyo and up.
Willow factions: the first talksurou Tsubame branch / refined, dignified artistic style
Sanskistan: The first Sanshitei Yoritomo is central / flashy and bright style
Katsura: The first generation Katsura Fumie branch
Mitomi faction: The first Tsukudatei Fumogato, the first generation Laught Fukutei Fukumatsu, the second generation Katsumi Yuji, and the third generation Laught Tatei Matsutsuru formed
These faction fights resulted in mutual friendship with each other. Despite division and controversy, it also resulted in a motivation to aim for excellent art.
"This is the one that destroyed Osaka Rakugo"
When the era reaches Taisho, rakugo becomes disappearing.
In Tokyo, Katsura and Mitomo factions are gradually getting tired.
In order to have a new taste, Rakugo families also began to exchange east and west.
Transportation has also developed, so there may be times when it is easier to get back and forth.
A big change will occur here in the upper comedy world.
Katsura fainted when Katsura Wataride, who was a central figure, died, absorbed by the Mitomi school and disappeared.
On the other hand, "Opponents" led by Masutaro Okada has been emerging.
"Opponents" is a factionist who emphasizes "color objects" (entertainment other than Rakugo) other than Rakugo.
While the Mitomo faction was also losing its momentum temporarily, it was a situation to counter the offensive against the opponents somehow.
What appeared to it was "Yoshimoto Kogyo".
Yoshimoto Kogyo's history What's wrong? Founder philosophy that pursued laughter and entertainers from the Meiji era
The voting by Yoshimoto and Mrs. Yoshimoto, who began with the occasion of Tenma's "Second Bungei-kan", developed rapidly and formed hands with opponents.
And after the death of Masaro Okada, they took over the opponents, the momentum is further increased and the Mitomi school finally absorbed.
The upper entertainment world will be in the state of "Yoshimoto Kagetsuki School" alone.
However, when Yoshimoto Kogyo falls down the era, he will disregard Rakugon.
After the death of the first generation Katsura Spring Foundation who was called "Late killing" and boasted tremendous popularity, they are incompetent to a comedian. In addition to that, I did not take any attitude to protect upper rakugo.
"This is the one that destroyed Osaka Rakugo"
Hayashi Masunosuke, the founder / brother of Yoshimoto Seii who led Yoshimoto Kogyo in later years, says so.
Short story books, records, radio epidemics
In Tokyo, I was devastated by the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 (Taisho 12).
Many rakugo families were sacrificed, and the vicarious burning down. Therefore, for the time being, the box office will not be done.
At this time, Yoshimoto Kogyo has enthusiastically invited Rakugo from Tokyo and contributed to reconstruction.
While the earthquake destroyed the atmosphere of Edo, new technology will bring change to the world.
Shorthand books, records, radio.
"Shosapo Books" is a shorthand story that listens to rakugo and a talk.
Shorthand books and records have gained popularity as being able to enjoy rakugo even if not going to the vaudeville.
Regarding the radio, the original box office had a lot of caution.
If you can listen to rakugo in free stuff, customers will not take the trouble to take a seat. I was concerned.
Although the times and times mentioned above will go back and forth, in Showa 5 (1930), Chieko Keisuke appeared on the radio without permission to Yoshimoto Kogyo of the affiliation, which is a big uproar within the industry.
However, the result was OK with casts and one case was settled.
Far from reducing customers, it was deemed to have a propaganda effect and it reached a settlement.
first generation · Kei Spring Complex / quoted from wikipedia
Infidelity such as idol and others is refrained by the influence of the war and a "storytail" is made
To the Showa era through Meiji Taisho.
Although the popularity of Rakugo is increasing more and more, intense braking will be applied.
When Showa 15 (1940), Osamu Parents' Association was established, the "Japan Entertainment Culture Federation" was founded.
As a result of this, the movement to review rakugo also in the times of the times came out.
In short it is self-restraint.
"Showa Tsuka" was built in Showa 16 (1941), Asakusa Imperial Palace .
Thirty-three programs with the theme of "Affectionate, Outdoors, Injustice Conflict" etc which do not match the times are forbidden and they were made as tombs of those plays.
It is necessary to become Tsumaraku if it becomes like this. Rakugo will atrophy without waiting for the authorities to ban.
Rakugo families can not be connected with war.
As a consolation squad and soldier, we headed to the front, the air attack of the US military burned down the victory and robbed the rakugo family's fine weather.
War took a smile from people and burnt laughter.
after the war – to the era of radio rakugo and TV Daiki
A situation where the one side becomes a burned-out field, the things to eat also lack, and the orphans who have lost parents are wandering.
Even so during that time, people headed to the burned-in vestment to be drawn in.
One month after the end of the war on August 15, 1945, people were overflowing in the victory that remained burned.
In 1946, a revival ceremony was held for the program that was buried in "Honashizuka".
Neither prostitute nor fellow man also revived in Rakugo 's performance, and Rakugo group integrated during wartime revived.
It is finally a full-blown resurrection.
On the other hand, a painful accident that the third generation, Samutakei song lol which was popular after the war was hit by the jeep of the resident's army and died
Broadcasting law was established in 1951 (1951).
It is the beginning of the era of Radio & TV Rakugo.
I do not need a set.
No band playing is required.
Besides it is also popular.
Rakugo families frequently call from radio programs, and they got lots of money.
It is such an era that Rakugo is only flowing if you turn on the radio.
On the other hand, it was more popular for television to play like a bad bra.
It is famous for the Okiri corner of the longevity program " smile point " which was broadcasted in Showa 41 (1966).
For TV generations it may well be well known.
The golden age of rakugo arrival & the resurgence of upper rakugo!
From the Showa 30's to the 40 th year is also called the Rakugo golden period.
Rakugo changed its appearance while loved ones came out.
Speaking Rakugo, it is now old times that she was a vaudeville.
It is a radio, it is a television, and it becomes a entertainment hall.
On the other hand, Upper Rakugo was struggling in a severe situation than Tokyo.
As mentioned above, it is great that I lost momentum to be inversely proportional to the prosperity of Yoshimoto Kogyo.
The victory burned down during the war and the rakugo family was a scourge of about ten people, even to make the upper rakugo revive after the war.
Even after the war, veterans died one after another, and upper rakugo was in danger of dying out.
What I came out was rakugo families called "upper rakugo four heavenly kings".
Popularity also returns with their struggle, and Yoshimoto Kogyo also comes to be a Rakugo family.
Hyundai · Laught Kitty Ryutsu is a seller representing Yoshimoto Kogyo.
It was nice to hear that the radio personalities gained popularity among young people that he broke up.
Likewise, the number of rakugo families active in places other than main business such as radio and TV hosts increased.
It is a new place to memorize that the contemporary · Shinta Chunpei Shimba performed the Imagawa Yoshimoto role in the Taiga Drama "Otogaid Owara Naoto" in 2017.
Traditional but constantly new transfigurable rakugo
Rakugo who has been entertaining Japanese people since the Edo period.
I think that everyone is realizing that the transfiguration is remarkable.
The environment of enjoying rakugo is also changing.
There are people who enjoy it on rakugo channel of YouTube, podcast of smartphone.
Or TV drama "Chiritteetchin" and "Tiger & Dragon".
Manga's " Rakugo Tenjo Yui ", " Showa Genroku Rakugo Shinjitsu ].
Even if I have never heard rakugo overrepresented, I enjoyed my work as a theme, I was watching a TV program from Rakugo.
Beyond living in Japan, it is something we always touch.
Although it is traditional, it is always new. Is not it a charm of Rakugo?
Shinjuku Suehiro tei
sentence: Blue Koyaki
Yamamoto Susumu Kawaride Shobo Shinsha Inc. 2006-05-18
Sales Ranking: 447676
Public interest corporation Rakugo Art Association
Copyright © 2017 BUSHOO! JAPAN (Military Japan) All Rights Reserved.